Cryptology is the study of secret communications. There are two primary
branches of study: cryptography and cryptanalysis. Cryptography is the
study of developing secret communications. Cryptanalysis is the study of
breaking secret communications.
Of secret communications, there are two primary branches: cryptographic
systems and steganographic systems. Cryptographic systems seek to secret
the meaning of information conveyed
, whereas steganographic systems seek to secret the existence of the information itself
Cryptogaphic systems are composed of two branches: ciphers and codes.
Cipher systems encrypt single (or groups) of letters at a time whereas code
systems encrypt whole words, phrases, or sentences at a time. The primary
difference here is that code systems operate on the level of meaning.
The result of encrypting a message [clear text] results in ciphertext.